Sunday, May 31, 2009

"Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha"- The Dream That He Prays For... Is Yours - Audio Shiur

In this latest and final shiur on berchas "Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha" in Shmoneh Esrei, Reb Yerachmiel quoted from dozens of sources as he succinctly and powerfully summarized the entire bracha from start to finish, while reminding us that this bracha holds within it the ikkar, most personal and most poignant dream of every single Jewish soul.

CLICK HERE to get the shiur by either left clicking to listen right away or right clicking and selecting "Save Target As" to download.

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Thursday, May 28, 2009

Rav Ephraim Wachsman Erev Shavuos - mp3 Shiur

CLICK HERE to get the audio shiur.

HT R' Shaima Goldberg (Mohel: (917)822-9910) & Avraham Katz

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Wednesday, May 27, 2009

Cleansing That Which is Soiled

For the second time on Monday, we noticed that our four year old son had washed his disposable bowl and spoon before throwing them away. I was highly amused by this since it would seem pointless to me to wash something that will be thrown in the garbage in a minute anyway. So I asked him why he was washing them even though he was about to throw them away?

He answered me that he just likes to make dirty things clean. G-d willing he should always be that way!

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Rav Yehoshua Hartman - Maharal Shiur For Shavuos

Courtesy of an anonymous friend of Dixie Yid, here is a summary and audio shiur by Rav Yehoshua Hartman in Baltimore on Maharal in preperation for Shavuos.

The Shiur was given 5/25/09 at Shaarei Zion in Baltimore in honor of the Rav's, Rabbi Moshe Hauer's, Maharal shiur completing sefer Netzach Yisrael, and as a prelude to Shavuos.

Rabbi Hartman is the renowned author of the new (blue annotated) Maharal on Gur Aryeh and many other seforim of Maharal.

This shiur discussed three approaches of the Maharal why the Jewish people were not counted at Matan Torah. Many fascinating points were mentioned along the way such as:

How do you know when you should get engaged? (Rav Hutner)

Why are we bound by the Torah if we weren't there to accept it?

Why is the word for friend and the word for evil the same in Hebrew?

Can it ever be said that a person is 'not cut out for learning'?

Once a week we should tell our kids that we are crazy about them. You can never be 'over bal tosif' with too much love."

And much much more.
CLICK HERE for the shiur.

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Tuesday, May 26, 2009

"Every Day is a Test" in BigLaw and in Life

Today is the first day of my summer associateship in "BigLaw." I will not be at the law firm at which I usually work for the next two and a half months. There is one particular aspect of the process of working toward getting a job in "BigLaw" that I think I really ought to incorporate into my approach to avodas Hashem.

Because I have recognized that every contact with the law firms to which I have applied is judged strictly, I have come to look at every phone call, every meeting, every e-mail, every letter and every social event (and doing quality work even more so) as a test. Hiring partners must choose between a multitude of applicants for these positions so I think their attitude is, "If I have a choice between two applicants, and one made a silly typo in an e-mail, said something a bit awkward at his interview, or had a small stain on his jacket, showing that he is not even detail oriented when attempting to obtain a high-paying job, why should I entrust him with our highly billed clients?"

I have, therefore, reviewed and customized every single résumé and cover letter that I sent out, edited and re-edited every e-mail or letter that I sent to a firm and tried to be cognizant of the fact that these items were the medium by which I would be judged by the members of firm recruiting departments and hiring partners. At many of my call-back interviews at the firms' offices this past Fall, I was taken to lunch by two younger associates at various expensive kosher restaurants in Midtown. I know that each one of them had to fill out an evaluation form about me afterward with their impressions about how I "performed" at lunch.

In fact, especially in this economy, this whole summer will be one big nine week "interview" where every day I will be judged and reviewed on everything from my legal memo writing abilities to my social skills. It will be an exercise in constant vigilance to ensure that everything that I say, do and wear will be "just right."

Every day in Modim, we thank Hashem "ועל נסיך שבכל יום עמנו," for His everyday miracles. Of course we thank Hashem for His open miracles whereby it is revealed that he has saved the Jewish people from danger, especially after last week's yeshua when Hashem used the FBI's dedication to save us. But this tefillah teaches that we also thank Hashem for the everyday miracles when he saves us and we do not even know about it.

But, as Rav Shwartz points out in Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh, Vol. 5, in about the 30th Ma'amar of the "Pirkei Avodah u"Machshava" section, there are three root meanings of the word "נס." One of them is "test." Thus, when we thank Hashem "ועל נסיך שבכל יום עמנו," we are also thanking Him for the fact that he "tests" us every day. As the author of that sefer points out, everything is a test.

I think that I have mostly internalized the knowledge that "everything is a test" when it comes to trying to get, and IY"H eventually keep, a job in "BigLaw." The real test is to use the methods generally outlined in Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh seforim to turn the intellectual knowledge that every part of life is a test in avodas Hashem

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Breslov Chassidus on Shavuos Part II - Rebb. Yehudis Golshevsky

I am happy to present the second shiur in Rebbetzin Yehudis Golshevsky's series for women only covering Breslov teachings on Shavuos. In this shiur, Rebb. Golshevsky covers:
  • Meat and Dairy on Shavuos: Likutei Halachos Devarim HaYotzim Min HaChai 4:38-42;
  • Torah and Tefillah
CLICK HERE to get the shiur. Kol tuv!

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Sunday, May 24, 2009

Look Who is Pretending to Daven

I took my four year old son to davening on Friday morning. He sat very nicely the whole time and at the end, he began wrapping the straps of my head-tefilin around his arm and shuckeling (swaying) as if he was davening. This got me to thinking which of the following phrases would be more correct:

"Look, he's pretending to daven just like me."

"Look, he's pretending to daven, just like me."
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Final Shiur on Bilvavi Vol. 2, Ch. 11 - Rabbi Boruch Leff

Here is the last in a series of shiurim by Rav Boruch Leff from Baltimore on Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh, Vol. 2, Chapter 11.

The Shiur discussed in depth what Bilvavi is trying to accomplish: Instinctively seeing Hashem in everything immediately vs. dealing with Hashem as more of an 'afterthought', even if as a real and genuine 'afterthought.'

CLICK HERE to get the shiur.

P.S. You can get "Shabbos in My Soul," Volumes 1 and 2 by Rabbi Leff, for the price of one, HERE.

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Thursday, May 21, 2009

CLICK HERE for Free Shiurim by Rav Moshe Weinberger!

CLICK HERE to check out this offer for free shiurim by my rebbe, Rav Moshe Weinberger at

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Wednesday, May 20, 2009

"Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha": A Torah and Tefilla Tour - Audio Shiur

In this unique shuir from Reb Yerachmiel on the topic of berchas "Ve'Lerushalayim" in Shmoneh Esrei, Reb Yerachmiel takes us on of "tour" of Yerushalayim's past, present and future as explored through the pages of our precious Siddur.

Famous sites on the journey include Lecha Dodi at the Kosel, Monday's Shir Shel Yom, Hashkiveinu of Shabbos and Chol, a visit with Eliyahu Hanavi (Zachor LaTov) in Berchas Ha'Mazon, Al Neharos Bavel and the Shir HaMaalos of the future, and even a visit to the Bais Hamikdash itself.

to get the shiur by either left clicking to listen right away or right clicking and selecting "Save Target As" to download.

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Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Eitan Katz in Baltimore Next Shabbos - Yisborach Shimcha Video


Congregation Shomrei Emunah and
Bais Haknesses Ohr Hachaim present

A Shabbos of Hisorrerus with Eitan Katz
world renowned singer and performer

Eitan's stirring and upbeat niggunim are very unique in the world of Jewish music. He has given concerts and performed around the world with the belief that music fuses sound and spirituality into a unique blend which reach all of our senses. He has composed many of his own songs, and is also particularly fond of singing and popularizing Niggunim of Reb Shlomo Carlebach. We look forward to what is sure to be an uplifting and memorable experience.

Shabbos Parshas Bamidbar May 22-23 (one week from this Shabbos)

Kabbolas Shabbos
at Shomrei Emunah: preceded by Mincha at 7:05 PM
Friday Night Tish/Oneg Shabbos:
at Bais Haknesses Ohr Hachaim: 10:00 PM

Shabbos Morning Davening
at Bais Haknesses Ohr Hachaim: 9:00 AM

Seudah Shlishis
at Shomrei Emunah: following 7:40 Mincha
(note early Mincha start time due to special Seudah Shlishis with extra spirited singing)

Motzei Shabbos "Havdalah Kumzitz"
for men and high school boys - In conjunction with Congregation Tiferes Yisroel
at Shomrei Emunah: 9:45 PM
With Divrei Hisorerrus by Rabbi Menachem Goldberger

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Fighting Against "Lust Addiction" A Website to Help

Guard Your - HT Avakesh. From their website:

Welcome to the GuardYourEyes community, a vibrant network and fellowship of religious Jews of all affiliations, struggling to purify themselves and break free from inappropriate behaviors stemming from Lust addiction.

With the advance of technology and the ease of availability and privacy that the internet provides, it has become a daily struggle for many religious Jews to remain Erlich (morally and ethically upright) even in their own homes. Jewish Leaders, Rabbis and Experts worldwide, are beginning to speak out about this serious problem more and more.

Our network is comprised of a website:, a dynamic blog-site (under development) at that offers new material, tips, stories and articles each day, RSS feeds (coming soon) and a pulsating forum where members post logs of their journeys to recovery, ask questions and exchange tons of Chizuk with the rest of the community. Besides this, the GYE network provides weekly phone conferences, hotlines - both in the U.S and Israel, and two daily Chizuk e-mails, 1. “Learning how to break free of lust addiction” and 2. “General Chizuk in guarding the eyes”. We also help people find accountability partners and sponsors.

For the first time, a religious Jew has where to turn to for help in this area, as well as an entire network of tools, tips and group support to help break free from the insidious grasp of this addiction. All our work is free of charge (although donations are our life-line) and we zealously protect the complete anonymity of our members. On our forum, charts and on the hotlines and weekly phone conferences, only pseudo-names and non-revealing e-mail addresses are used. For starters, you may want to make yourself an anonymous e-mail address before joining our community (something like

With the guidance of R’ Avraham J. Twerski, a world renowned expert on addictions, author of over 50 books and a true Gadol in Klal Yisrael, we present a set of guidelines to help anyone, no matter how far they have fallen, to find their way out of the vicious cycle of Lust addiction.

Our sages have called Shmiras Habris “Yesod”, meaning “Foundation”. The foundation of a building is “underground” and no one sees it, yet it holds up the entire building! Shmiras Habris is the hidden part of a Jew, it’s the real you. If the foundation of a Jew is weak, his whole spiritual structure is in grave danger of collapse. At GYE we are finally joining together, for ourselves and for all future generations, to strengthen the foundations of our people.

This area has been Taboo in the religious community for far too long. There is such a desperate need for our work today. Finally people are finding that they are not alone and that there is true hope in overcoming this addiction.

The very fabric of our society is at stake here. Families are literally being destroyed. Husbands, wives and children are all being affected in some way. The ease of accessibility and privacy that the internet provides, is the all out attack of Amalek in our generation.

At GuardYourEyes we are saving lives and marriages every day - literally, not to mention giving people back their sanity, self-respect and connection to spirituality, all of which they had given up for lost, thinking that they had no hope to ever break free… See here for how wide spread this epidemic seems to be in the religious community today.

And please see here for Testimonials of how our network is helping people all the time. See as well the testimonial section of our new site over here. And download a PDF file of the latest testimonials, just from this past March and April, 2009, over here.

Is there anywhere else in the world where one can find such an awakening of such deep levels of Teshuvah and closeness to Hashem like what is happening on our site and forum every day? Read the testimonials and see for yourself! How many countless times people write to us how they simply broke down crying when reading the website and the posts on the forum, and when they realize that they too have hope!

GuardUrEyes is the main, if not the only, religious network in the world today that deals with this issue in such a comprehensive manner, with so many tools, a forum, a blog site, e-mail lists, phone conferences, hot-lines, 12-Steps, etc…

And what we have now is only a start. Ultimately, we hope that our work will spread throughout the Jewish world. We are developing a network of sponsors and partners, and a growing community of people who want to be part of this revolution.

And we hope that these handbooks that we are working on now will ultimately evolve into published books. And we hope that our message will one day be translated into other languages as well, such as Hebrew, Russian, Spanish, French and more!

The Zohar writes that Shmiras Habris is one of the main areas holding up the Ge’ulah. We literally are paving the path for Moshiach. Be a part of it! Join the revolution. Every time we fix ourselves, we are fixing a whole world. (See here for a cute parable).

Help Us Help Others. We can’t do it without you.

Help support GuardYourEyes according to your means. Perhaps you can set aside a percentage of your Ma’aser money and become a monthly sponsor to “partner” in our holy work.

And if you know of any other ways that we may garner financial support, for example, other people who may have Ma’aser money and who would understand the importance of what we are doing, or organizations that work towards these same goals, please let us know.

The very fabric of our society is at stake. Be a part of saving Klal Yisrael in what is perhaps the most difficult test of our generation.

In the merit of your help, Hashem will give you special divine assistance in your own struggle. This is based on “Midah kineged Midah”. If you help others heal and help us spread the message of hope, Hashem will help you as well, in ways you never believed possible.

Perhaps you can help us spread the word and let the Rabbanim, mechanchim and community leaders know that there is hope. Or perhaps you can help us get articles published in Jewish newspapers, magazines and on-line websites. Maybe you even have your own website and can put up a banner that links to our site. See here for some available banners. And see here for a Flyer that you can print out to hang up in your neighborhood shteiblach, bulletin boards or the like, or use to sponsor an ad in your community or neighborhood magazines.

Chazal say that there is nothing Hashem despises as much as Zimah (promiscuity and licentiousness). Yet, without these intense struggles, could we really become great men and Tzadikim? So Hashem knows that we need to have this Yetzer Hara, but only so that we succeed to break free in the end, and in the process, we learn to give Hashem our hearts. And that’s what GuardUrEyes is doing: Helping people get back their sanity, their lives, and their connection with Hashem and his Torah. We are fixing the world, one person at a time.

R’ Noach Weinberg Za”l, Rosh yeshiva of Aish Hatorah used to ask people if they thought they could change the world. And they would say, “what can I do on my own?”, And then he would ask them, “If Hashem helped you, could you do it then ?” And they would agree that with Hashem’s help, anything is possible. That was Rav Noach’s life-time philosophy. He knew that he could do nothing without Hashem, but with Hashem, he knew he could change the world. And he DID.

He was also once asked how he had been so successful in building such a colossal world-wide Kiruv movement. He replied that he had once seen a crane lifting a 10 ton block of cement, while the workers on the roof guided it into place. Explained Rav Noach, since the prophets have already promised that the Yidden will do Teshuvah before Moshiach’s time, Hashem is already holding the 10 ton block for us. All that is left for us to do, is guide it into place.

It is the same with Shmiras Habris. The Holy books write that before Moshiach time there will be a great awakening of purity in these areas. All we have to do, is to be there to guide our Jewish brother’s hearts back into place.

Happy is the lot of those who are a part of this!

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Monday, May 18, 2009

What Do You Choose? One of "You" Or Two of "Someone Else"?

Here is another question. Let's say you have a choice. You could do some mitzvah/avodah that would help bring you greater Deveikus, If you do not take advantage of the opportunity to do it, it will give two other people the chance to do it, though you would misss out. Or, if you do take advantage of the opportunity, then it would be only you, one person, who would be able to do it.

Do you say that really one can only take responsibility for himself and its in Hashem's hands what other people do so it's not your cheshbon (not your place to calculate) whether one "you" or two "others" get to do the mitzvah?

Or do you say the purpose of the world is to be marbeh k'vod Shomayim and to give Hashem nachas. So whatever I can do to bring more Deveikus/k'vod Shomayim into the world, I should do. And l'mai nafkah li minah (what difference does it make to me) who gets closer to Hashem? Two people is more k'vod shomayim than one so let me allow two other people to do it rather than only one "me"?

What do you think and why?

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Shavuos is Not What You Think - Audio Shiur by Rabbi Boruch Leff

Here is Rabbi Boruch Leff's shiur on Shavuos, given in Baltimore, entitled, Shavuos is Not What You Think. Here, he covers:
  • Why isn't Shavuos explained as Matan Torah in the Chumash?
  • Why doesn't Shavous have a specific mitzvah?
  • Why must we indulge our bodies on Shavuos?
  • Is Shavuos really about learning Torah?
  • Can we live with Matan Torah daily?
CLICK HERE to get the shiur.
P.S. You can get "Shabbos in My Soul," Volumes 1 and 2 by Rabbi Leff, for the price of one, HERE.

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Breslov Chassidus for Women on Shavuos - Rebb. Yehudis Golshevsky - Audio Shiur

I am happy to present the first in Rebbetzin Yehudis Golshevsky's series of shiurim for women only covering Breslov teachings on Shavuos. In this shiur, Rebb. Golshevsky covers:
  • a story about Rav Bransdorfer zt"l
  • Likutei Moharan II:73--the forty-nine gates of teshuvah.
CLICK HERE to get the shiur. Kol tuv!

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Sunday, May 17, 2009

Amar Rabi Akiva - Yeshiva Boys Choir - Hilarious Music Video

My kids, especially my son, love this song, "V'Ahavta," by the Yeshiva Boys Choir, and think this video by some very creative camp counselors is hilarious. Thought you might enjoy.

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Rabbi Boruch Leff on Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh - Audio Shiur - Part 4

Here is Part 4 in Rabbi Boruch Leff's series of shiurim on Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh, Volume 2, Chapter 11. Here, he covers:
  • Working on internalizing Hashgacha Pratis must be a daily avodah-One cannot work on it only during a crisis.

  • Seeing Hashem's Hand is not only with the 'big events' of life but in the regular and 'small' events.

  • You shouldn't be angry at G-d because one day you will know why everything you didn't like happened and you'll be happy it happened.

  • Steipler: When growing in mussar, accept things upon yourself. . .then knock half off and that's what you should accept.

  • The true growing lesson from L'Ag B'Omer-Rebbe Akiva never gave up!

  • Do you believe in G-d or do you know there's a G-d? Berditchiver story
CLICK HERE to get the shiur.

P.S. You can get "Shabbos in My Soul," Volumes 1 and 2 by Rabbi Leff, for the price of one, HERE.

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Friday, May 15, 2009

Pictures of Reb Tzvi Mayer Zilberberg on Lag B'Omer - Bow & Arrow

Courtesy of Reb Yosef Newman...

If Reb Tzvi Mayer went out of his way to shoot a home-made bow and arrow on Lag B'Omer, there must be something very deep to that. I know there's a minhag that kids are given and play with them on Lag B'Omer, but there must be something very deep to it. Does anyone know what this would be about it on a deeper level that Reb Tzvi Mayer made an avodah of going to do it?

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Rav Shmuel Brazil: Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai & the Power of Tefillah

With thanks to Reb Baruch (Barry) Salamon for sharing and distributing Rabbi Brazil's shiurim, below is a shiur he gave related to Lag BaOmer but which relates to ideas that are applicable every day.

CLICK HERE to get the shiur by either left clicking to listen right away or right clicking and selecting "Save Target As" to download.

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Kol Brisk on Parshas Behar-Bechukosai

לעלוי נשמת הגאון הר"ר אהרן בן הר"ר משה הלוי סאלאווייציק זצ"ל

פרשת בהר-בחקתי

אם בחקתי תלכו - שתהיו עמלים בתורה (רש"י)

Why is "laboring in Torah" expressed in the pasuk as bechukosai TAILAICHU, as "going in the statutes?"
What does "laboring in Torah" entail??

Rav Tzaddok miLublin, in the Pri Tzaddik, explains that laboring in Torah refers to the learning of Torah sheb'al peh, the oral Torah, rather than the Torah shebichsav, the written Torah.

The medrash Tanchuma says that when Am Yisrael exclaimed na'aseh v'nishmah, they were referring to Torah shebichsav, the written Torah. There is no sweat, toil or frustration involved in the learning of Torah Shebichsav. When the medrash relates that HaKadosh Baruch Hu held the mountain over us and told us that we must accept the Torah, willingly or otherwise, this medrash refers to the Torah sheb'al Peh. The learning of Torah sheb'al peh involves intense exertion, great frustration and even loss of sleep.
It is through this tremendous exertion and labour that the Torah becomes carved and engraved into the heart. Therefore the pasuk expresses the Torah sheb'al peh that is thus acquired as chukos (chakak=engrave).

When this directive is carried out, HaKadosh Baruch Hu promises us, TAILAICHU, you shall go forward, you will advance, you will be MEHALCHIM, those who move ahead.

Mal'achim, angels, are stationary, OMDIM. Their spiritual level is fixed. Man, on the other hand, as long as he is alive, he moves spiritually. Hopefully, this movement is upward, forward, ahead.

How can a person be assured that his movement is forward, and that he is not chas veshalom regressing and falling into degenerative behavior patterns directed by the yetzer harah??

Only through the involvement, exertion in Torah sheb'al Peh.

One can observe a peculiar phenomenon. Young people start out, graduate from school with all the great promise of bright futures ahead, brilliant careers, salaries, talent and charm to get them where ever it is that they wish to go. But you meet them twenty, thirty years later, and what becomes of them? And you wonder, what ever happened to all the promise, all their dreams? How can one prevent stagnation and degeneration of character? What is the secret to true enthusiasm, happiness and achievement?

The pasuk states the answer boldly and clearly. The road to real advancement and progress in life is through AMAILUS baTorah, that is through the constant laboring in Torah sheb'al peh, of course, each person on their own level, in their own capacity. ECHAD HAMARBEH V'ECHAD HAMAMIT.. This is not a question of quantity covered, but of intensity of effort. This is not a cushioned ride on a road with great fanfare. There are no oohs and aahs to be heard. It is rather a humble, quiet and non-obtrusive path, requiring much self-discipline in order not to be diverted or lured by the many confusing distractions.

But it leads you to great destinations.


And what about the women, who are exempt from the study of Torah sheb'al peh, how can they advance, and move ahead?

It is important to realize that women are exempt but not excluded from the study of Torah sheb'al peh. A woman who truly wishes to learn Torah sheb'al peh is welcome to do so. This is on condition that that her learning does not conflict with her many vital responsibilities for which she was exempted in the first place. Also, the learning must be carried out in a manner which poses absolutely no breach of the highest standards of modesty.

However, this is not the direction to which chazal point the focus.
Nashim, b'mai zacha'in? B'akrai bnaihu lvai knishta, uvasnoi gevaraihu bai rabanan, v'natrin l'gavraihu ad d'asu mibai rabanan.
Women, how do they merit? They send their sons to learn Torah, they allow their husbands to go to learn, and they await their return from the Bais Medrash.

The primary emphasis of chazal is on the moral, emotional support and encouragement which the woman provides. This is a most essential part of the greater picture, for in this lies her unique strength..

What greater (timely) example can be given to illustrate this lesson, but Rochel, the wife of Rabbi Akiva. The Lubavitcher Rebbe zt"l points out, in the words of chazal, "they await the return of their husbands": Rochel waited twenty four years...
Let us further examine:
Rochel sent her husband to learn, but how did he look at the outset? Forty years old ( it is never too late) and illiterate, resented talmidai chachamim! Rochel sent her husband, but how did she get him to go? Chazal relate how Rochel, with great sensitivity helped her husband overcome his feelings of shame and self-consciousness. (forty years old and sitting in cheder with little children learning alef-bais).

Rochel planted a flower pot between the humps of a dromedary, and off she went with Akiva and the animal to the market. The first day, the whole population came to view the hilarious sight and to laugh. The next day, the silly sight drew a crowd, but not like the first day. The next day a few people showed up, but most just walked right past them. And the next day, it was just a regular fixture in the marketplace - a camel with flowers growing off his back. The passers-by had gotten so used to the sight, that it drew no response at all. You see, said Rochel, people get used to everything, so why be ashamed! It worked.

She awaited his return, as we said, for twenty-four years. She was subjected to great external pressures; dire poverty (she had been raised in great affluence, being the daughter of one of the wealthiest men in the land), disownment by her father, biting criticism from the neighbors...

The Vilna Gaon quoted this gemara in the hesped for his wife. Her merit is greater, he said. While I went to learn Torah in the heated Bais Medrash, she sat home in the cold...

Rochel's husband indeed returned after twenty four years, and how did he look upon his arrival??
He returned as Rabbi Akiva, one of the greatest teachers of Am Yisrael.

And what did he have to say about his devoted wife? Rabbi Akiva announced before all,
שלי ושלכם, שלה היא.
All of my Torah and all of your Torah belongs to her!

The destination is great.

אם בחקתי תלכו.

A gutten Erev Shabbos from Yerushalayim Ir HaKodesh.

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Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Pictures & Video From Aish Kodesh Lag B'Omer Hillulah Last Night

Here are some pictures and videos of some of the niggunim from the Hillula for Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai at Aish Kodesh (held at the YI of Lawrence-Cedarhurst) last night. It featured a secret from Rav Weinberger that is beyond words (v'hameivin yavin) and music by Nochi Krohn , Eitan Katz and Avi Feinberg on drums. With thanks to Neil in the comments for pointing this out, you can download and listen to the shiur portion of the Hillulah by Rav Weinberger for free (as of now) HERE. Amazing. The videos below don't have much of a picture in them (except for the top one of the Barditchiver Niggun where you can see Rav Weinberger), but the music and the chevra singing are the ikar. Enjoy.

Barditchiver Niggun With Rav Weinberger

Amar Rebbe Akiva

Yisborach Shimcha

Oz Vehadar Levusha


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Lag BaOmer, Penimius Hatorah and Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai- Guest Post by R. Zvi Leshem

Tomorrow, 19 Iyar, is the 120th birthday of the Holy Piaseczner, Rebbe Kalonymos Kalmish HYD. He was connected with every fiber of his being to the holy Zohar of Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai and viewed the Zohar HaKadosh as the Sefira of Keter Elyon, which was completed when unified with the Chassidic teachings of the Holy Besht, representing the Sefira of Malchut.
May the merit of Rebbe Shimon, the Besht and Rebbe Kalonymos protect Am Yisrael and bring the final Geula! Chag Sameach, Rav Zvi

Rav Zvi Leshem

The Kabala, of which Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai's (who's Yartzeit we commemorate on Lag B'Omer) holy Zohar, is the preeminent work, is often referred to as Penimiut HaTora, the Inner Dimension of the Tora. Others refer to it as the hidden light of the Tora. Many years ago Rav Yehoshua Reich shlita pointed out to me that even in the realm of Halacha Rebbe Shimon focuses on the inner dimension, since he poskins in Hilchot Shabbat[1] (and his positions are accepted) the principles of dvar sh'aino mitkavein mutar[2], and melacha sh'aino tzricha l'gufa patur[3], positions that essentially define physical actions, with their resultant Halachic consequences, according to the person's inner intention. Thus two people could perform the same act on Shabbat and be judged completely differently depending upon their thoughts at the time.

The [4]story of Rebbe Shimon's hiding in the cave from the Romans begins with a disagreement between him and Rebbe Yehuda. Rebbe Yehuda praises the Romans for building great markets, bridges and bathhouses. Rebbe Shimon retorts that all of these were built for the purpose of serving the Romans' evil intentions, prostitution, taxation and the worship of the body. After this Rebbe Shimon was sentenced to death and fled to the cave. We can see clearly that Rebbe Yehuda focuses upon the external physical reality whereas Rebbe Shimon defines these things based upon the internal intension.

Check and see, in the principles of Hilchot Shabbat mentioned above, in which Rebbe Shimon defines the action based upon their internal intentions, his opponent, who defines them based upon the external physical reality, is none other than Rebbe Yehuda.

May Rebbe Shimon's merit protect all of Am Yisrael.
Lag B'Omer sameach!
[1] Interestingly, the Zohar refers to Rebbe Shimon as "Shabbat" and the Karliner Rebbe would say "Gut Shabbos" in Meron, even during the week! See the Netivot Shalom on Lag B'Omer.
[2] Baitza 23a.
[3] Shabbat 121b.
[4] Shabbat 33b[!].

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Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha: City of David; City of HASHEM! - Audio Shiur

In this latest shiur on the topic of berchas "Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha" in Shemoneh Esrei, Reb Yerachmiel of the Baltimore Community Kollel delved-into the phrase "Ve'Cheysay Dovid Mehaira Lesocha Tachin" and explained the yesod of the "Bach", who, echoed by the "Sifsay Chayim" and Rav Pincus zt"l, explain why the re-establishment of the throne of Moshiach Ben Dovid is such an integral component to the rebuilding of Yerushalayim and Bais Mikdash, and to the return of the Shechina Hakedosha thereto.

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Monday, May 11, 2009

Breslov Chassidus on Lag B'Omer - Audio Shiur By Rebb. Yehudis Golshevsky

I am happy to present Rebbetzin Yehudis Golshevsky's weekly shiur in Breslov Chassidus for Women. This week she discussed teachings of Breslov Chassidus on the Tikun of Rebbe Shimon Bar Yochai in preperation for Lag B'Omer.

CLICK HERE to get the shiur by either left clicking to listen right away or right clicking and selecting "Save Target As" to download.

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Friday, May 8, 2009

Bilvavi Mishakn Evneh, Vol. 2 - Audio Shiur - Part 3

Here is Part 3 in Rabbi Boruch Leff's series of shiurim on Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh, Volume 2. Here, he covers:
  • Hashem's constant renewing of everything that exists.

  • The fact that real growth is a long process, based on the gemara which describes going on the long-short way not on the short-long way.

  • We must be planters not merely builders.

  • The main strategy with which Bilvavi tells us to live.
CLICK HERE to get the shiur.
P.S. You can get "Shabbos in My Soul," Volumes 1 and 2 by Rabbi Leff, for the price of one, HERE.

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Thursday, May 7, 2009

Guest Post by Rabbi Zvi Leshem - Lag B'Omer - Reflections From Rav Shagar, zt'l

Rav Zvi Leshem

Lag b'Omer always falls out around the time of Parshat Emor, which deals with the issue of Tumat Met, the impurity caused by the dead. I once heard from Rav Shabbtai Rappaport shlita that chukim are not "strange" arbitrary laws, rather they are "taboos" deeply ingrained (chakuk) in the human subconscious, such as the fear of death and the sense of impurity and uneasiness, let alone terror, that it leaves us with. Rav Shagar zt"l wrote much about death and its rectification, even before his illness. He seemed to realize the power it holds over us and the need for us to deal with it in spiritually positive ways.[1] Perhaps in his own soul he also had a premonition that he would not remain in this world for long. Yesterday, while looking through various notes and papers pertaining to Lag b'Omer, when we commemorate the yartzeit of Rebbe Shimon bar Yochai (Rashbi), I came across long forgotten notes from a shiur that Rav Shagar gave on 15 Iyar 5764 (spring of 2004) about Lag b'Omer. The shiur dealt with the death of the Zaddik, and of course was focused upon Rashbi. Yet for me, re-reading my notes, it was clearly discussing the death of the Zaddik – HaRav Shagar himself….I must admit that my notes are brief and there is clearly much that I didn't understand, and yet, I feel the need to write down these thoughts, as they are related to the Hilula, the celebration, of our Zaddik, whose second yartzeit will be in 25 Sivan, in just over a month. The shiur was based primarily upon two sources, the Gemara in Eiruvin 54a with Rashi's commentary, and Rebbe Natan's Lekutai Halachot: Nezikin 3:8-9[2]. I ask the reader's forgiveness for this brief peek into a topic that deserves a much fuller treatment. I hope that I have merited understanding Rav Shagar's intent correctly.

The Gemara compares our lives in this world to a Hilula, a wedding feast. We are enjoined to enjoy physical pleasures now, for they will not be available in the next world, and our lives pass by very quickly, like a wedding feast. There is little point in long-term planning, as the inevitability of death hangs over all of our heads at all times, and no one knows when his time will come.[3] Rebbe Natan discusses Lag b'Omer, the Hilula of Rashbi, and why it is such a joyous day. He contends that the death of the Zaddik stimulates a great rectification, for humanity and for the cosmos. Death is likened to a long sleep and the resurrection of the dead is the awakening from this slumber. The main avoda of the Zaddik is to rectify the Jewish People, helping them to do teshuva and draw close to HaShem. Paradoxically, this is mainly achieved when the Zaddik is asleep, or in a state of nefila, fallen-ness, which is akin to sleeping. For it is at these times of Mochin d'Katnut, constricted consciousness, that the Zaddik is low enough to connect with the average person and be able to help him to find HaShem. This is also achieved when the Zaddik engages in worldly discussions or tells stories. Additionally, when the Zaddik sleeps, his soul goes up to Heaven in the form of Mayin Nukvin, feminine waters, causing great yichudim, unifications above. Thus according to the Zohar and the Ari, the greatest unification and rectification of all is achieved with the death of the Zaddik, in which his entire soul rises above, together with endless sparks which are rectified. Therefore the Zaddik is greater in death than in life, for he is able to enact a more profound and expansive rectification. This is apparent from the Zohar's description of the death of Rashbi (on Lag b'Omer). At the moment of death the souls of many sinners whom the Zaddik was unable to influence in life are rectified as well. This is why the prostration upon the graves of Zaddikim has such a profound impact causing people to do teshuva, with the greatest example being the visitation of Rashbi's grave in Meron on Lag b'Omer.[4] The celebration on the Zaddik's yartzeit is a premonition of the great joy that will occur at the time of the resurrection of the dead, and Lag b'Omer is also the turning point in Sefirat HaOmer from judgment to sweetness, as the lights of Matan Tora begin to shine.[5]

Rav Shagar adds to the above the understanding that our world is a Hilula, a wedding feast, which moves on headlong towards death, here today, gone tomorrow. Chassidut emphasized this in the context of the Hilula of the Zaddik. However, if the wedding is actually a foreshadowing of inevitable death, why is it experienced as ecstatic joy? The answer is bound up in our view of death. As long as we are trapped into apprehending death as no less than the complete extinction of the human being, than life does seem to be a fruitless experience with no hope of personal redemption. Paradoxically, this pessimistic view, which can lead to nihilism, is a function of our belief in ourselves as "yeish", something. However, if we can accept that in reality we are "ayin", nothingness, then death ceases to be extinction, and becomes, in the view of the Ari, evaporation and return to unity within the Divine Ayin. Either way, our sense of temporality and terminality become more and more acute as we move though life.

The First Lubavitcher Rebbe (based upon earlier Kabalistic sources) points out the paradoxical reality that "loss produces presence", and thus, people sometimes seem much more present after they have died. When someone is alive, we tend to understand them based only upon limited (and external) aspects of their personality, whereas after they are gone, we are able to gain a total understanding that eluded us during their lifetime. When the Zaddik dies, his soul becomes incorporated into the Ein Sof, the endless expanse of Divinity above. According to the Ari this is an aspect of the raising of Mayin Nukvin, feminine waters. These are the feminine waters of the Shechina, which when aroused, cause a great cosmic unification. This unification, dependent upon the avoda of humanity, enables the human being to transcend temporality and achieve eternity.

Our yearning for unity with HaShem above is matched by His desire for us. However, what does He desire, what can we give to Him? HaShem needs our stories, which are our lives. These stories arouse HaShem's passion for us, also leading to zivug, to cosmic unity. When this happens our sparks, particles of our own souls, are rectified. Then we rise to the Shechina at the time of our death, the beginning of deep sleep and a dream-like state. We experience this daily in prayer, when we fall upon our faces in Tachanun, giving ourselves over entirely to HaShem and achieving the awareness that we are not really in control at all. Ultimately, just as regular sleep leads to the renewal of our consciousness (hitchadshut hamochin), so too, this great sleep prepares us for the ultimate renewal – the resurrection.

May we merit to experience the presence of all of the great Zaddikim; Rashbi, Rebbe Nachman and Rav Shagar, as "larger in death than in life". May we all do teshuva and merit, after 120 years, to evaporate into the great expanse of Ayin, in a great state of unity and rectification. May we merit the ultimate rectification of the Messianic Era and the Resurrection.

Shabbat Shalom, Lag b'Omer sameach.

[1] See our drasha for Ve'etchanan – Nachamu 5768, and see the chilling passage in Rav Shagar's Al Kapot HaManul, p. 68-71: Compassion comes from the helplessness of the human being. I sit by the bed of a cancer patient, his days are numbered, he groans with pain…instead of denying and fighting it – which only increases his suffering and fear, he needs to learn to accept, to get go of his grasp and give himself over to the will of HaShem, to accept his lack of control…when he lets go…something deeper is created, compassion…
[2] Based upon Rebbe Nachman, Lekutai Moharan 35.
[3] Of course this "Dionysian" description of life, death and pleasure requires explication in its own right and can hardly be taken at face value as the standard Rabbinic view of reality and proper behavior. For a wedding drasha based upon this Gemara, see Rav Yair Dreifuss shlita, Reim HaAhuvim, p. 95.
[4] See also the Netivot Shalom on Lag b'Omer.
[5] See also the Bnai Yissaschar on Lag b'Omer.

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Kol Brisk on Parshas Emor

Parashas Emor

Yir'as Hashem tehora, omedes la'ad, Fear of Hashem is pure, it stands for ever. Mi'yirah shenisyarai Aharon lifnei HaKadosh Baruch Hu, zachah shenitna lo parsha zu she'aina zaza mimenu umibanav umibnei banav ad sof kol hadoros.

Because of the fear that Aharon had of HaKadosh Baruch Hu, he merited that this parasha was given to him, laws that remains relevant to him and to his descendants for all generations. (Yalkut Emor)

The medrash relates to us that Aharon, through his superlative level of Yir'as Shamayim, imprinted into the genes of his offspring for all generations this great Kedusha. One of the strong reassurances from G-d about the final Geula is that this most fragile institution of Kehuna shall withstand the thousands of years of exposure to the elements; exile, wanderings, suffering and subordination (Haftara: vehakohanim.. asher shomru es mishmeres mikdashi). And when Mashiach will come, speedily in our days, there truly will be Kohanim kshairim, those who have carefully watched over their Kehunah and therefore will be fit to serve in the Bayis Shlishi, amen.

Where do we find Aharon having behaved in a manner that exemplifies such great fear of Hashem?? Certainly throughout the parshios we find many instances of the great humility and self nullification of Aharon, as Rashi points out to us. Let us examine, however, our first encounter with Aharon in the Torah:

In parashas Shemos, after Hashem had appointed Moshe Rabbainu as leader, the number one man in Klal Yisrael, Hashem informed Moshe that Aharon was on his way to greet Moshe. ..hinei hu yotzei likrasecha vera'acha vesamach belibo, "..behold he is coming to meet you and he will see you and he will rejoice IN HIS HEART." Rashi: Not as you assume that he will be offended that you [his younger brother] have been chosen for greatness.

Aharon, in a moment of great test, proved himself completely devoid of any vestige of jealousy or rivalry toward his younger brother Moshe. The Torah testifies that all Aharon felt, deep in his heart, was pure and genuine joy for his younger brother's having been chosen by G-d. Is it not true that we feel most jealous of those with whom we have the most in common?? If some anonymous citizen wins an award or lands a great job with a high salary, the sting we feel is negligible compared to if it is our classmate, next-door neighbor or younger brother. This is the rule: The more we have in common with someone, the more we are aware of the differences between us, and hence the more these differences disturb us. Sibling rivalry, therefore, is a most prevalent phenomenon.

Aharon was completely above these natural petty calculations. For Aharon possessed constant Yir'as Hashem. Yir'as Shomayim is the fear that results when a person is aware that he is standing every moment in the Presence of Melech Malchei Hamelachim, Who created him as a unique individual with a unique task, and Who provides him every moment with all that is necessary to fulfill that task. The Y'rai Hashem has no time at all to pay attention to how his accomplishments and achievements measure up to those around him . He has his task to fulfill, with no time or energy to waste on the irrelevant!!! Ultimately, it is Yir'as Shomayim that is the source of true self-confidence.


The week's parasha also brings our attention to a story with quite a different conclusion. Here is the account of a person who made his comparisons, drew his conclusions, and where this warped perspective brought him:

Vayeitzei ben isha yisraelis vehu ben ish mitzri.. vayikov.. es Hashem.. vayikallel.. And the son of a Jewish woman went out, and he was the son of an Egyptian man.. and he blasphemed.. This is the story of a Jewish man who had a Jewish mother and a non-Jewish father. He went out and attempted to pitch his tent in the camp of the tribe of Dan, his mother's tribe. He was told that this was forbidden, for a person's tribe is determined by his father. This man made the comparison. Acutely aware of his Jewish mother, he could not make peace with the fact that the law was different in his case because of his non-Jewish father. Jealousy set in.. Vayetzei.. and he went out. From where did he go out? "Hakin'ah.. motzee es ha'adam min ha'olam." Unbridled jealousy eventually brings a person to lose faith. And so it was with the ben isha yisraelis.. and he blasphemed..

The Torah so sharply draws for us the alternatives and indicates the direction in which to set our goals.

Today, our society places heavy emphasis on competition. A person today is constantly looked over and rated for his accomplishments; his brain power, salary, status, social group, social flair, etc. This is a system that is anti Torah. For in such a system, there can be no winners without losers. The winners create the losers, for otherwise, how can they win?? According to the Torah, there is no such a thing as a loser. Everyone was created b'tzelem Elokim! Everyone has a place and an essential G-dly task to fulfill, no matter how he looks in comparison to others. Yes, even the ben isha yisraelis would have had a place, had he accepted his status with humility, with Yiras Shomayim. Outwardly, there is an order in Klal Yisrael; each Shevet, each tribe has their boundaries, and then there are Yisraelim, Levi'im and Kohanim. It is absolutely necessary be at peace with and to accept one's location and chelek. Before G-d, however, all boundaries fall. "Yomru nah yir'ai Hashem", let those that fear Hashem praise Him", says David HaMelech, earmarking the Yir'ai Hashem as the highest level of those who praise Him, higher even than the Kohanim. On the contrary, failure does not even have to be a setback, it can easily be transformed into something very positive and precious, as the Kotzker said, "There is nothing as perfect before G-d as a broken heart."

But you might be asking, what about what our sages teach, kinas sofrim tarbeh chochmah, '"rivalry between scholars serves to increase wisdom"?
This chas veshalom does not mean that we are supposed to try and outdo others in spiritual achievements!! Rather, we are encouraged to observe and learn from others' spiritual strengths, and to strive for the same for ourselves. As Moshe Rabbeinu said, when he was told that there were two nevi'im prophesying about the end of Moshe Rabbeinu's term as leader, "if only all of Hashem's nation could be prophets.."

When a system is set up where motivation is based on the premise of superiority over others, of climbing to the top of the social ladder, however "pious" or "real world" the packaging of that ladder seems, there are serious considerations: In rivalry and competition, those that get ahead are faced with a deep problem of neglecting to develop their characters, and of their becoming addicted to their ego-feeding and shallow experiences, which greatly hamper and limit their freedom of movement and of functioning, and their sensitivity to the needs of others. (Who was more sensitive than Aharon, who spent his days mending rifts between husband and wife, between friends, etc.) . Also, we must bear in mind that such a pressured system drives those with the softer natures to drop out. They lose motivation for fear of exposing their inability to measure up to the high and unrealistic expectations of those around them.

The conclusion is clear. We must steer far away from the pressures of unhealthy competition and rivalry, for ourselves and for our children. In pre-war Europe, there was a certain Chasidishe Rebbe who instructed his many sons each to settle in a different town, to enable their optimal development. Nothing good, meaningful or permanent comes out of trying to prove ourselves to the world as superior to those around us. Rather, by concentrating on truly imbuing ourselves and our families with Yir'as Shomayim, b'syata dishmaya, we follow the Torah's guide to each discovering and fulfilling his or her individual role on earth.

"Yomru nah yir'ai Hashem, ki l'olam chasdo."
Let those who fear Hashem affirm, that His kindness is Eternal.. A gutten Erev Shabbos from Yerushalayim Ir HaKodesh.

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Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Series of Articles on Gerus/Conversion & Converts by Yosef Hakohen

Anyone who would like to subscribe by e-mail to the rest of the series of essays on Gerus and Gerim, converts, by Yosef Hakohen, may do so by e-mailing him at

My Search for the Soul of Zion – 66

Converts and the Soul of Zion:

Introduction to the Next Segment of Our Series:

Dear Friends,

At the beginning of the series on the “soul” of Zion, we mentioned that the term “Zion” has several meanings. The following references serve as examples:

1. Although the term “Zion” refers to Jerusalem’s Mount Zion, south of the Temple Mount, it can also refer to the Temple Mount itself, as when the Temple was destroyed, the Prophet Jeremiah lamented: “For this our heart was faint...for Mount Zion which lies desolate” (Lamentations 5:17,18).

2. “Zion” can refer to Jerusalem, as it is written: “And they shall call you the city of Hashem, Zion of the Holy One of Israel” (Isaiah 60:14).

3. “Zion” is a term for the Land of Israel; thus, the Prophet Isaiah conveyed the following Divine promise regarding the renewal of the Land: “For Hashem will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her ruins; He will make her desert like Eden, and her wasteland like a garden of Hashem; joy and gladness will be found there, thanksgiving and the sound of music” (Isaiah 51:3).

4. “Zion” also refers to the People of Israel, and this reference is found in the following Divine proclamation: “And to say unto Zion, ‘You are My people!’ ” (Isaiah 51:16)

During the past year, we have begun to explore the “soul” of Zion – the inner spirit that reveals the raison d’etre of Zion. The above definitions of Zion remind us that when we discover the soul of Zion, we discover the inner spirit that reveals the raison d’etre of the Temple, Jerusalem, the Land of Israel, and the People of Israel.

In the previous letters, we discussed how the Torah – the Divine Teaching – is the soul of Zion. We also discussed how the mitzvos – the Divine mandates within the Torah – reveal the raison d’etre of Zion. With the help of Hashem, the Compassionate and Life-Giving One, we will now begin to discuss the important role of converts in helping us to gain a deeper understanding of Zion’s soul and raison d’etre.

We will also discuss why sincere converts who join our people through accepting the Covenant of the Torah have a special connection to the Land of Zion. For example, the Prophet Isaiah conveyed to these sincere converts the following Divine reassurance and promise:

“Let not the foreigner who has joined himself to Hashem, speak, saying, ‘Hashem will utterly separate me from His people’… The foreigners who join themselves to Hashem to serve Him and to love the Name of Hashem to become servants unto Him, all who guard the Sabbath against desecration, and grasp My Covenant tightly – I will bring them to My sacred mountain, and I will gladden them in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:6,7).

“The foreigner” – This term is referring to the converts, those who are known as gerei tzedek – converts for righteousness. (Commentary of Ibn Ezra)

Last, but not least, the next segment of our series will help to prepare us for the approaching Festival of Shavuos, when we celebrate the giving of the Torah. As we shall discuss, converts have a special and honored connection with this festival. We are reminded of this connection when we read on Shavuos the Book of Ruth – the story of the righteous convert, Ruth, who moved to the Land of Zion and merited to become an ancestor of the future Messiah.

Yosef Ben Shlomo Hakohen

An archive of most of the letters in our series appears on our website:

Hazon – Our Universal Vision

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Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha: Nothing Lasts Forever; Except This: "Binyan Olam" - Audio Shiur

In this shiur on the topic of berchas "Ve'Lerushalayim Ircha" in Shmoneh Esrei and book-ended by niggunim, Reb Yerachmiel of the Baltimore Community Kollel discussed the deeper meanings of our daily request of Hashem to build the Third Bais HaMikdash as a "Binyan Olam"; an "Eternal Building".

Of the many yesodosdik topics covered in this exciting shiur, perhaps no inyan is more important than Reb Yerachmiel's focus on "Ahavas Chinam" as the direct tikkun of the sin of "Sinas Chinam" which destroyed the Second Bais Ha'Mikdash over 2000 years ago.

CLICK HERE to get the shiur by either left clicking to listen right away or right clicking and selecting "Save Target As" to download.

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Monday, May 4, 2009

Swine Flu Reference in Talmud - Taanis 21b

Click to enlarge

Courtesy of Avraham Katz. Click here to get Dixie Yid in your e-mail Inbox or here to subscribe in Google Reader.

Breslov Chassidus on Sefiras HaOmer - Rebb. Yehudis Golshevsky Part 3

Rebbetzin Yehudis Golshevsky has been kind enough to share her third shiur in her series on Breslov Chassidus on Sefiras HaOmer. For Women Only. This shiur covers:
  • The end of Likutei Halachos, Hilchos Sefira, #1,
  • Netzach (Likutei Moharan I:122)
  • Rebbe Nachman

CLICK HERE to download the shiur

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Friday, May 1, 2009

Breslov Chassidus on Sefiras HaOmer - Shiur #2 by Rebb. Yehudis Golshevsky

I am happy to present Rebbetzin Yehudis Golshevsky's second shiur in her series on Breslov Chassidus on Sefiras HaOmer. This shiur is a continuation of Likutei Halachos, hilchos sefirah #1. For women only.

CLICK HERE to get the shiur.

You can get the other shiurim by Rebbetzin Golshevsky HERE.

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